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Salads and
Vegetarian Menus


Health Hints and Suggestions»

Vegetable Salad Recipes»

Fruit Salad Recipes»

Salad Dressing Recipes»

Food Contents of Fruits and Vegetables»

Tree Fruits and Berries»

Garden Fruits and Vegetables»

The Acid Base Balance»

Mineral Salts»


Menus for Seven Days»


A great teacher once said, As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he. With almost equal truth it might be contended that as a man eats, so does he think. For the wise and thoughtful person is one who uses due care in the selection and consumption of his daily food, being well aware that upon the adaptability of that food to his own particular requirements depends the well-being of his body as well as the perfect functioning of brain and nerves.

While it is true that no two persons are constituted exactly alike, and that each should study his or her own particular needs, yet there are certain basic principles of diet which apply to all. This little book has for its object the instruction of the average man and woman concerning these principles, that through their observation they may be enabled so to reconstruct and recondition the physical body as to bring about a more perfect functioning, thus adding immeasurably to the joy of living.

In the limited pages of a small book it is possible to give only a general outline of the basic facts concerning diet as we understand it. Through personal experience and careful and intelligent observation each may add something to this knowledge. And as time goes on we may expect new and important discoveries concerning the food we eat which will materially lengthen our lives and prolong the usefulness of our physical vehicles.

The preceding editions have been revised, and enlarged from twenty-four to forty-one pages, thereby adding much worthwhile information.

Health Hints and Suggestions

If tired, one should rest before eating, or eat very lightly (better to not eat at all), as all bodily activities are slowed down.

When an interval of five hours is allowed between meals, the stomach has an hour in which to empty and disinfect itself completely.

Worry and depressing emotional states cause indigestion, because of the retarding influence on the digestive juices.

The diet problem is largely an individual problem requiring your own solution.

Change your diet gradually and change your mind at the same time.

Some foods are like fire and powder; harmless separated, but dangerous together.

If you live to eat, you will eat condiments; if you eat to live, you will eat food.

In order to gain weight and strength it is some-times necessary to eat less but more carefully selected food. Overeating retards the ease and rapidity of digestion.

If you do not sleep well see if you can find the cause in your evening meal.

Incorrect eating is not the cause of all diseases but correct eating will cure many and relieve all.

A normal digestive system can miss a meal and suffer no inconvenience.

Few persons are harmed by taking too little salt but an army of sick people show the consequences of eating too much salt.

There is nothing necessary or desirable for human nutrition to be found in meats or flesh foods which is not also found in and derived from vegetable products.

One sees less meat and more vegetable foods being used as humanity progresses upward in the scale of civilization.

There is no educational propaganda today on the health values of alcohol such were shattered long ago. It is now recognized as a distinct protoplasmic poison.

Coffee and tea act as temporary stimulants and have no food value. It is unwise to say that they harm no one.

Liquids dilute the gastric juices, therefore no water nor any other liquid except milk should be taken at meals. Milk, though a liquid, is also a food and as such, mixes with other foods; it should be sipped.

Buttermilk or thick clabbered milk is often more easily digested than sweet milk and is to be recommended for its cleansing qualities.

Sufficient water keeps the kidneys flushed out, dilutes the waste, and prevents the irritation that results from concentrated urine. At least one glass of water between meals, one before retiring and one on rising in the morning should be taken.>

A glass of fruit juice taken early in the morning before breakfast stimulates the bowel action.

Fresh green vegetables and ripe fruit are the most important foods and of the greatest value as natural tonics. They contain the greatest proportion of nutritive matter and the smallest amount of dangerous ash: the latter congests the system.

One meal a day should be made entirely of uncooked food; i.e., fresh fruits or raw green vegetables.

The apple, which can always be obtained even in northern climates, is the king of all fruits, as it combines a high food value with properties of a tonic and body-cleansing nature.

Sugar is wholesome in its natural form as contained in vegetables, fresh fruits, and honey. Commercial sugar should be used very moderately. It causes fermentation in the system, and among other things is largely responsible for the so-called acid stomach.

Vegetables, in order to retain their full food value, should be steamed; or if boiled, the smallest possible amount of water should be used, which when drained off, can be kept for making soup.

It has been the custom to discard the outer green leaves which are not as tender and crisp as the inner bleached leaves. It has been shown, however, that the green leaves contain the higher vitamin content. When in good condition they should be used.

Fresh figs as well as dried (unsulphered) are recognized for their high alkaline content and mild laxative effect.

Besides butter, only vegetable fats should be used and these sparingly, as the green vegetables contain natural oils. as well as organic minerals and bulk, forming a good spring

Fresh vegetables contain the purest water, as well diet.

Strong spices, highly seasoned dishes, condiments. and vinegar should be avoided and salt usedsparingly. These are a definite factor in producing catarrhal conditions and hemorrhoids.

Vegetable Salad Recipes


Take required number of apples and cut into small pieces. Take same amount of carrots and grate them, mix with orange juice and serve on lettuce leaves.


Remove the coarse stalks from half a pound of water cress, wash well and place in clean cloth until the moisture is absorbed and the cress crisp. Dice two tart apples. Remove peel and all white portion of an orange and cut into quarters; slice crosswise in thin slices a third cup broken English walnuts. Combine the ingredients and mix well with dressing.


After boiling asparagus stalks until tender, drain and place on lettuce leaves and serve with mayonnaise dressing.


Two slices of canned pineapple; 1/2 cup English walnut sliced; one cup crisp celery cut into small pieces; one pint cooked asparagus cut into inch pieces. Mix pineapple, celery, and walnuts with mayonnaise dressing. Form in a mound for an individual serving on a lettuce leaf. Make a border of the cooked asparagus which has been prepared with dressing.


One cup cold boiled potatoes, one cup of cold beets and one of shredded red cabbage. Mix the above and allow to stand for an hour. Serve on lettuce leaves, garnish with parsley.


Six beets, one stalk celery, one lemon, one cup pecan nuts, pinch of salt. Boil six medium-size beets, cool and cut out centers. Cut fine the centers, celery, and nuts; add salt and lemon juice. Fill beet cups and serve on lettuce leaf.


Chop one cup of cabbage heart and another of apple; mix a few celery stalks and leaves and a couple of chopped onions. Any other greens you may have on hand will help improve this salad. Mix well; make a dressing of olive oil and lemon juice, pour over and serve on German endive arranged about the edge of the dish.


Slice one head of cabbage very fine and chop one pint of bleached celery leaves. Prepare dressing of one cup of sour cream, one tablespoon lemon juice, one tablespoon brown sugar and one teaspoon salt.


A small head of cabbage shredded very fine. One small grated onion, a tablespoon of lemon juice, three tablespoons of olive oil. Blend all thoroughly.


One cup shredded cabbage; two red apples; 1/4 cup chopped ripe olives; 1/4 cup French dressing; one teaspoon cream cheese. Combine cabbage and ripe olives and add to the apples which have been washed and diced without peeling. Arrange on lettuce leaves and garnish with pitted ripe olives which have been stuffed with cream cheese.


Required: 1/2 cabbage, two tablespoons seeded raisins, two bananas, two apples, and 1/2 cup of orange juice. Chop cabbage and apples and mix with seeded raisins. Mash bananas until smooth and blend with orange juice. Pour orange mixture over cabbage and serve on lettuce.


Shred cabbage, orange, and lettuce leaves and a small portion of carrot and mix all with dressing. Garnish with ripe olives and tender celery tips.


Mix finely shredded cabbage and sweet peppers. Serve with mayonnaise.


Use equal portions of chopped carrots and pecan nuts, pass through a food chopper using coarse knife. Mix with mayonnaise and serve on lettuce leaves, reserving some of the mayonnaise and a few whole nuts for the top.


Cook separately equal amounts of young carrots, beets and new potatoes. When quite cold, cut into small strips about the length of the little finger, by half thickness. Mix the salad well in mayonnaise and serve with hearts of celery and hard-boiled eggs cut into slices.


Grate as many carrots as are required for meal and mix with half as much grated pineapple. Serve on lettuce leaf.


Mix one cup diced cooked carrots, one cup canned or fresh boiled peas and 1/2 cup chopped celery. Add four tablespoons of broken pecan nuts and one table-spoon finely chopped pimento. Mix with mayonnaise and serve on crisp lettuce.


Shred or grate required amount of carrots and mix with well-washed raisins and chopped walnuts. Use orange juice as dressing and serve chilled.


Break up carefully and wash one head of cauliflower, boil for 20 minutes in hot salted water. Drain and allow to cool. Garnish plate with parsley and place pieces of cauliflower on plate with mayonnaise dressing. Top with sliced ripe olives.


One green pepper, one stalk of celery, two apples, 1/2 cup walnut meats, one lemon, 1/2 cup cream. Chop fine the celery, apples, walnuts, and pepper. Mix well with lemon juice. Whip cream and serve on top of salad.


Two cupfuls of fresh crisp celery, cut fine; 1-1/2 cupfuls shelled walnuts, ground. Just before serving prepare salad plates garnished with tender celery and parsley leaves. Put on the cut celery and sprinkle nuts on top. Tablespoon of mayonnaise in center.


Cut celery stems in two-inch lengths, fill with raw peanut butter and a little salt. Serve on lettuce or parsley leaves.


Chop stems of celery and mix with a quantity of canned or fresh boiled peas; put in bowl and stir in mayonnaise. Prepare lettuce on plate and garnish edges with sliced tomatoes and cucumber. Then put required amount of celery and peas in center.


Grate one small clove of garlic into one pound of fresh cottage cheese and season with salt. Place two heaping tablespoons of cheese on each plate garnished with lettuce leaf. Sprinkle over the top one tablespoon each of chopped pimento and English walnuts. Serve with mayonnaise dressing.


The thick white stems of the chard steamed just a few minutes so that they do not become too soft and flabby. Cool and later serve with mayonnaise.


One head crisp lettuce, two chopped green peppers, two tablespoons of chopped chives. Shred the lettuce and put into bowl, sprinkle over with green peppers and chopped chives and dress with mayonnaise.


Arrange on garnished salad plate thinly-sliced cucumber. Between the slices place sliced radishes and garnish with parsley and watercress. Serve with desired dressing.


One-half pound dandelion, three green onions, 1/2 cup grated raw carrot, one cup cubed cucumber, dressing and 1/2 cup grated cheese. Cut fresh crisp dandelion in small pieces. Mince onions and combine with first four ingredients and mix well with dressing. When ready to serve sprinkle over with cheese.


Cut fine, large bleached dandelion or endive and sprinkle with dressing. Make a circle or nest of this on the plate, place half a hard boiled egg in center, cut lengthwise, and garnish with bleached celery leaves and pimento.


On garnished salad plate arrange sliced Bermuda onions in a small circle. In the center place a mound of shredded carrots. Serve with lemon and oil dressing.


Cut fine three heads of blanched crisp endive and slice five medium-size cold boiled potatoes (potatoes boiled in their jackets are best for salad), one medium-sized onion chopped fine; mix all well with dressing and serve on plates garnished with whole endive leaves.


On fresh crisp lettuce leaves place large thick slices of tomato. In separate bowl prepare equal parts of small cucumber cubes and finely sliced celery. Add half the measure of chopped nut meats and one-third quantity of finely-chopped red or green peppers. Moisten with boiled dressing. When thoroughly mixed place portions on tomatoes and sprinkle with chopped chives.


Grind one cucumber, leaves of one celery stalk. five carrots, two medium-sized onions, several sprigs of parsley, one cold boiled potato through a vegetable grinder. Serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise dressing.


On a bed of chopped cabbage place finely shredded raw beets, then top with shredded carrots. Serve with mayonnaise.


Select a choice head of lettuce, allowing one head for two persons. Remove outer leaves, wash and drain thoroughly. Moisten leaves of lettuce with mayonnaise after being placed. on plate and sprinkle with finely-chopped chives and hard-boiled eggs.


Garnish plate with lettuce leaf. Then shred three lettuce leaves and some green bell pepper. Place three slices of tomato on the lettuce. Over this cut celery fine and serve with mayonnaise.


Slice three lettuce leaves medium-fine. Place >grated raw beet on lettuce. Cut fine, green pepper and two radishes; sprinkle over top. Serve with mayonnaise.


Cook lima beans until tender, but not so that shape is lost. Add onions minced very fine and serve with mayonnaise. Canned string beans may be added.


One cup sliced onions, one-half cup chopped watercress, one-half cup chopped tomatoes. Mix with desired dressing.


Garnish plate with crisp lettuce leaves, put in four tablespoons of cold boiled green peas in the center, sprinkle generously with chopped walnuts, placing tablespoon of mayonnaise dressing in center.


Take equal parts of cold lima beans, celery, and hard-boiled eggs. Chop celery and eggs separately. Place beans on plate garnished with lettuce leaves, sprinkle over with celery and eggs and then mayonnaise to finish. A few ground English walnuts will improve the salad.


1. Boil potatoes in jackets. Remove from stove before entirely soft, for potatoes will not work into a salad well when mushy. When cold, slice, adding finely chopped celery and olives. Mix with dressing and serve on lettuce leaf.

2. Quarter and slice thin, six cold boiled potatoes and one large onion; place in alternate layers in salad dish, sprinkling a tiny bit of salt on each layer. Boil 1/3 cup of lemon juice and two tablespoons of butter or oil and pour over potatoes and onion. Cover closely till cold and serve with squares of boiled beet.

3. Slice and dice four cold boiled potatoes and two hard-boiled eggs. Pit and chop one cup of ripe olives and one green bell pepper. Add 1/2 cup of chopped walnuts and a little chopped parsley. Mix with mayonnaise and serve on lettuce leaf.


Two cups tomato puree seasoned with bay leaf, two cloves, and paprika. Combine with lemon agar prepared as in lemon jelly recipe, and add diced celery, green onion, and chopped parsley. Pour into molds and >serve on lettuce. Garnish with ripe olives and radishes.


To one cup of crisp sliced raw red cabbage add one cup of apples cut into small cubes. Serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise.


Remove center from tomatoes, chop the part removed, mixing it with chopped parsley, onion, cucumber, celery. Marinate with desired dressing. Stuff tomato shells and serve on lettuce.


Prepare a bed of lettuce on plate. Chop sufficient onions, cucumber, and celery for the required amount and place on the lettuce. Over top sprinkle small amount of chopped green pepper and dressing.


Dice a tomato, one or two stems of celery and a few tender leaves of raw spinach. Add shredded raw cabbage and serve with lemon juice and oil. A little honey added to this dressing is good.

Garnish a plate with lettuce leaf. Place a few slices of cucumber, tomato, shredded carrots, and beets on salad plate and garnish with asparagus. Serve with mayonnaise dressing.


Wash and allow to stand in cold water for six hours, young crisp watercress. Slice fine some young onions and radishes and chopped hard-boiled egg; mix with dressing. Young spring dandelions may also be served in this manner.

Fruit Salad Recipes


Peel and cut ripe avocados into eighths, or smaller if the fruit is large. Combine with orange or grapefruit sections. Serve on lettuce leaves, with dressing if preferred.


Cut avocado into thin slices or small cubes and serve on crisp lettuce garnished with slices of tomato and lemon, or thinly sliced celery and sweet red pepper. Serve with any desired dressing.


Prepare a nest of fresh, crisp lettuce, peel and slice two bananas lengthwise and place on lettuce and over all put a tablespoon of dressing. Sprinkle with finely chopped dates and nuts.


Garnish dish with slices of pineapple. Peel and slice bananas; remove seeds and chop the dates, mix with bananas and place on dish with pineapple. Serve with mayonnaise or fruit dressing.


Cut small ripe cantaloupes into halves. Remove seeds, then cut off rounded bottom so that shell will stand on plate. Slice peaches, watermelon, bananas, and pitted cherries; mix all with the juice of pineapple. Fill cantaloupe shell with mixed fruit and garnish with strawberries.


One package Philadelphia cream cheese, 1/2 cup broken walnut meats, three cups diced apples, one cup mayonnaise dressing. Cut the cheese and apples in half-inch cubes. Add enough of mayonnaise dressing to blend the ingredients, and serve on garnished salad plates. Use the broken walnut meats on top of each serving.


Boil, peel, and blanch one pint of chestnuts. Peel and chop four medium-sized mellow apples with chestnuts. Serve with mayonnaise dressing on plates garnished with lettuce leaves.


Place slices of orange on plate as a garnish, fill a  teacup with sliced pineapple, banana, pear, and grapes. Press well into a cup to form its shape. Drop on plate garnished with orange. Sprinkle with finely chopped English walnuts and small seeded and chopped raisins. Serve with fruit juice.


Cut well chilled cantaloupe in half lengthwise and remove seeds. Prepare a salad of seeded grapes, sliced peaches, pears, and pineapple, and mix with the juice of the pineapple. Serve in cantaloupe halves.


One cup diced apples, one cup diced oranges, one cup diced bananas, 1/4 cup stoned cherries, 3/4 cup Golden dressing. Cut the fruit into half-inch cubes. Canned cherries may be used. Mix the fruit with the Golden dressing and serve on garnished salad plate.


Cut grapefruit in small pieces after removing all the rind; add some flaked peanuts and stir together. Serve on plates garnished with lettuce.


Required: 1-1/4 cups sugar, 1-1/2 cups cold water. 3/4 cup lemon juice, 1/3 box (1/4 oz.) vegetable gelatin. One cup boiling water. Prepare vegetable gelatin as directed. Mix the sugar, lemon juice, and cold water and strain the cooked gelatin into it. Pour into molds which have been wet with cold water. Set in cool place to solidify. Serve on garnished plates.


Equal parts of strawberries halved, bananas cubed and cherries pitted and halved. Drip over all a little honey and mix with grated pineapple, grated coconut or finely chopped blanched almonds.


Cut into small pieces the required amount of apples. oranges, and dates; add a few raisins and serve with honey thinned with orange juice. Lettuce leaves will garnish the plates.


Peel and cut into cubes pears and pineapple. Blanch and chop fine one-half pound almonds. Garnish plates with parsley sprigs; mix pears and pineapple; sprinkle nuts over top and serve with cream mayonnaise dressing.


Remove peel and slice three oranges very thin. For each orange allow one teaspoonful of chopped or sliced walnuts. Mix and use mayonnaise if preferred and serve on lettuce leaves.


One cup each of sliced pineapple and seeded white grapes, also three peeled and sliced peaches, one mellow apple, two sliced bananas and two tablespoons shredded coconut. Serve on plates garnished with lettuce leaves. A tablespoon of honey will add to the flavor.


Place equal parts of sliced peaches and bananas on lettuce leaf which has been arranged on plate. Sprinkle chopped walnuts over top and pour over small quantity of mayonnaise.


Garnish the required number of plates with fresh crisp lettuce leaves. Place a slice of pineapple in center of each plate, place enough fresh cream cheese on top to cover the fruit to within an inch of the edge, sprinkle with ground nuts and place a cherry in the center. Pour over this a little pineapple juice and serve.


For each person take one half pear; pierce pieces with black gumdrop to resemble porcupine needles; place gumdrop on stem end for head. Serve with pear liquid and lemon juice.


Obtain sufficient prunes to serve required number of persons; soak all night and steam slightly in the morning. Remove seeds and when cold fill with cottage cheese and serve on lettuce.


Use l/2 recipe lemon jelly, about 20 blanched almonds, 20 prunes, 10 Maraschino cherries, 1-1/2 cups cooked dressing or cream mayonnaise.

Prepare one-half of the recipe for lemon jelly. Pour this into a shallow pan about one inch deep and let stand until firm. Remove seeds from steamed or soaked prunes and fill with almond meats. Cut lemon jelly into half-inch cubes and arrange some of the cubes and stuffed prunes on a garnished plate. Drop a large spoonful of cream mayonnaise on the top and garnish with a cherry.


Mix one cup of seedless raisins, one cup of chopped apples, and half a cup of walnuts. Mix with orange juice and serve on lettuce leaf.


Garnish plate with whole slices of pineapple and place a few diced pieces each of banana, orange, apple, and peach on the plate. Sprinkle a few chopped walnuts on the center and pour over the juice of the pineapple.

One cup each of chopped oranges. bananas, and pineapple and one-half cup each of dried figs and dates Place on lettuce leaf and sprinkle with chopped nuts Pour over the top the juice of pineapple.

Salad Dressing Recipes

Ingredients: 1/4 cup pineapple, apple, or other light-colored fruit juice; 1/4 cup lemon juice; l/3 cup sugar; two eggs. Beat the eggs sufficiently to blend the yolk and the white, but not until foamy. Cook in a double boiler, stirring constantly until thickened. Set in cold water to cool.


One-third cup water, l/4 cup lemon juice, three teaspoonfuls olive oil, a little honey, celery salt, and sufficient catsup to complete the seasoning. Mix thoroughly and beat well.


Ingredients: l/4 cup cream; 2 egg yolks; 1/2 teaspoon salt; 2 tablespoons lemon juice; 1 cup olive oil or salad oil. Add the salt to the yolk of the egg and beat with a rotary egg beater until very thick, then add lemon juice, a few drops at a time, beating constantly. Add oil a teaspoonful at a time, beating constantly, adding more at the last until all is used.

Mayonnaise should usually be thinned with lemon juice rather than vinegar. A little Chili sauce may be used instead of other seasoning to add savor.

Lemon juice may also be used in boiled dressing but it should be added after the cooking is completed.


This is a very useful and appetizing dressing for vegetable salads. The cream may be whipped, using a delicate seasoning of salt, paprika, and a little sugar. A few drops of lemon juice may be added for favor.

Food Contents of
Fruits and Vegetables


Apples. The acid of apples is chiefly malic, the percentage of which varies greatly in different varieties. This acid has a stimulating effect on all the secreting organs in the body. Two apples eaten before breakfast each morning will help to overcome constipation. The apple is important for its valuable iron content. Contains a slight amount of vitamins B and C.

Avocados. Contain from 15 to 20% of highly digestible, emulsified fat, or as much as rich cream. They supply a protein equal to that of milk in nourishing value. Rich in vitamins with the exception of vitamin C. Fairly rich in potassium and sodium, and small amounts of iodine and fluorine. Decidedly alkaline in reaction. They are a valuable building food and are recommended as an aid in overcoming constipation.

Bananas. The banana contains a small protein content. It is rich in potassium, sodium, and calcium, fairly rich in vitamins A and C, and vitamin B in a lesser degree. On account of its high sugar content it is the most nutritious of all fruits. With the addition of milk, the ripe banana constitutes a complete food. By converting the pulp into a puree it is well utilized by invalids and infants.

Blackberries and Loganberries. Fresh black berries are laxative, containing 5% of cellulose, although the juice is frequently used in conditions of diarrhea and dysentery. Their acid is for the most part citric. Rich in vitamin B, having a small amount of vitamin C. Loganberries are about three-fourths citric acid, and the remainder malic acid. Rich in vitamin C and some vitamin B

Cherries. Are rich in iron and contribute to the formation of blood. The sweet varieties contain more than 10% of sugar, and have a nutritive value higher than that of the apple. They are beneficially used to stimulate the secretion of urine, and are also helpful in cases of hardening of the arteries. They are rich in potassium, and vitamin B, possessing also a small amount of vitamin C.

Currants and Gooseberries. Currants, especially the black, contain for the most part citric acid, possess a fair amount of vitamin B, and some vitamin C, rich in potassium. Currant juice is especially beneficial in catarrhal conditions, having a soothing effect on the mucous membranes. Gooseberries are rich in citric acid, and contain a large amount of vitamin C. They are laxative and stimulate kidney activity.

Dates. Very rich in sugar and potassium, containing also a fair amount of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The ash is alkali. Dates are recommended on the theory that they prolong life. In the desert they serve as the main food in the diet. For children they are a most healthful substitute for candy.

Figs. The ripe fig eaten fresh from the tree is one of the most delicious of fruits. It is highly laxative on account of the large amount of cellulose which it contains. The dried fig has a nutritive value double that of lean beef. The fig is rich in sugar, protein. calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and has a high alkaline content. Figs have produced beneficial results in the treatment of gallstones.

Grapefruit. Is very rich in fruit acids and salts, above all in citric acids. Rich in potassium and in both vitamins B and C. Grapefruit serves as a natural appetizer. As a drink in the morning or before bed-time it helps to overcome constipation, and also aids in reducing fevers. Recognized as a liver activator.

Grapes. The varieties differ in sweetness, the sugar content ranging from 13 to 20%. The acid content also varies; grapes contain both tartaric and malic acid. As the process of ripening continues the malic acid changes to tartaric. Rich in vitamins B and C. The grape cure is often recommended for better intestinal elimination, and excretion of uric acid from the body which makes the grape valuable in conditions of rheumatism, hyperacidity, constipation, stomach catarrh, and high blood pressure

Huckleberries and Blueberries. Huckleberries are chiefly known for their tannic acid content, hence are recognized as an astringent, and for their binding action, which makes them useful in diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal bleeding, when the juice is boiled. Contains vitamin B and some vitamin C. Blueberries are rich in potassium, having an alkaline residue; fairly rich in vitamin B, and vitamin C in small amount. The juice of blueberries is rich in antiseptic quality.

Lemons. The lemon is rich in organic acids. Its juice contains on an average of 7% citric acid. It has a caustic effect on the mucous membranes of the stomach and is decalcifying to the enamel of the teeth. The percentage of potassium in lemon juice is greater than in either apple juice or grape juice. The nutritive effect is that of an alkali instead of that of an acid. Of all fruits the lemon seems to possess the highest scurvy-preventing value. It is rich in vitamin C, and the peel is rich in etheric oils.

Lemon juice should be universally substituted for vinegar as an acid flavoring for salads and other vegetable dishes. As an appetizer it has no superior. Lemonade prepared with malt sugar is an excellent beverage for use in fevers. In fact lemons are beneficial in all types of circulatory disorders, and especially in curing colds. Lemons are often used in reducing diets. Applied externally, lemon is refreshing to the skin, and relieves inflammatory conditions.

Nuts. In nutritive value nuts far exceed all other food substances. They are rich in protein, fat, and carbohydrates; also in potassium, sodium, calcium. phosphorus and sulphur. Nuts are free from such waste products as uric acid, urea, and other tissue wastes which abound in meats. The almond, hazelnut, chestnut, peanut, pecan, and walnut all contain a rich store of iron. In that nuts contain a valuable protein they should be eaten with fruits.

Oranges. The orange is one of nature's finest gifts to man. Orange juice contains food in a form ready for immediate absorption and utilization. It has a small amount of incomplete protein, and a fair amount of sugar; rich in citric acids, in potassium and calcium; rich in vitamins A and B, and contains a large amount of vitamin C. The orange has an alkaline excess; therefore is excellent for over acid conditions. Excellent for stimulating bowel action especially when taken on rising in the morning and at bedtime. Oranges are considered a specific remedy in catarrhal conditions, dysentery, diarrhea, and in fever.

Peaches and Apricots. The finest variety of peach is rich in sugar and contains little acid. The apricot, a member of the peach family, differs from the peach in that it contains about twice the amount of sugar and even less acid. Rich in potassium and iron. Dried raw apricots allowed to stand in water overnight act as a mild purgative and are said to prevent flatulence.

Pears. The pear is important for its high sugar and calcium content. Pears aid digestion. Their sugar is principally fruit sugar and may be eaten by diabetics without causing any harm.

Pineapples. The pineapple is rich in fruit acids and potassium. It is best known for its mild laxative effect, and its protein splitting ferment, which has an action upon proteins resembling that of pepsin and pancreatin. It acts as a disinfectant in digestion, and also has a strong diuretic action.

Prunes and Plums. Of these there are many varieties, some sweet, while others contain a considerable amount of acid. They are known to have a solvent effect on catarrhs of the digestive tract. The prune when dried is nearly as rich in sugar as the fig. When freely eaten it has a decided laxative effect. Because of the large amount of unusable acid that prunes contain, they tend to acidify the urine, and should be avoided in cases of irritable bladder or if there is a tendency to acidosis.

Raspberries. Refreshing, and stimulate kidney activity. Contain a large amount of vitamins C and B, and have an alkaline excess. Useful for inflammation of the respiratory tract

Strawberries. Have a dissolving property; therefore indicated in conditions of gout, rheumatism, and Indian sprue, the latter disease curable on a diet of fresh strawberries. They are rich in minerals, especially phosphorus and iron; alkaline in reaction and contain bactericidal elements.

Garden Fruits and Vegetables

Artichoke. Being a bud vegetable it is rich in phosphorus and sulphur. Potassium, sodium, and calcium are also among its chief constituents. It is said to contain insulin instead of starch, and because of the high percentage of purine, which tends to produce uric acid, it would be contraindicated for diabetics. However, the Jerusalem artichokes are recommended for these cases as a substitute for potatoes.

Asparagus.This vegetable is valuable for its salts and vitamins. Although low in fuel value on account of its 94% water, it contains more protein than most vegetables. Green asparagus contains more of the mineral elements than the white. Taken in excess, asparagus tends to aggravate kidney disorders.

Beets and Beet Greens. This vegetable is excellent either raw or cooked. Beets contain about 10% sugar, and are rich in potassium and sodium. They may be favorably used as an alkalinizer, as a digestive aid, a diuretic, and are recommended by some authorities as a nerve and blood builder.

Broccoli. A very beneficial food. The purple-leafed variety is especially esteemed. It is rich in potassium, containing a fair amount of phosphorus and sulphur and traces of iodine. Rich in vitamin B, and contains some vitamin C.

Cabbage. This vegetable is chiefly valuable for its lime and alkaline salts. These constituents are largely lost in boiling, so it should be eaten either raw or steamed. It is rich in potassium and calcium; posses-sing traces of iodine. Rich in vitamins A, B, and C.

Carrots. This vegetable is more beneficial when eaten raw. It contains an easily digestible carbohydrate, is high in alkaline minerals, potassium, sodium, and calcium. also a trace of iodine. Vitamins A, B, and C are found to be in well-balanced proportions. On account of their antiseptic properties they tend to limit the putrefactive changes within the body. Beneficial in cases of acidosis, malnutrition, digestive disturbances. and as a blood normalizer.

Cauliflower. A member of the cabbage family. Its chief value is in the vitamins and salts, which are potassium and calcium, and a small amount of mustard oil. Considerable vitamin B, and a small amount of A and C.

Corn on Cob. When the cobs are young and small the corn is most nourishing, due to its high sugar con-tent. Young corn has an alkaline ash, which lessens as the kernels ripen. Corn is rich in potassium and phosphorus; an incomplete protein. Rich in vitamin B.

Cucumbers. Fresh cucumbers are a wholesome and valuable source of vitamin C, with a small amount of vitamin B. Rich in sodium, calcium, and magnesium, also in phosphorus and sulphur. They have a diuretic action and are excellent in metabolic diseases and in cases of gout. Cucumbers should be prepared with lemon juice and oil or sour cream.

Fresh Peas. When eaten raw peas are considered very healthful, and are also nutritious when boiled or steamed. Peas contain a considerable amount of sugar which in the ripe pea exists as carbohydrate. Peas are rich in incomplete protein, potassium, and magnesium Also contain phosphorus and sulphur. The vitamin content is A, B, and C.

Endive and Dandelion. These appetizing green salad vegetables should be made a conspicuous feature in the daily bill of fare. They are rich in potassium, calcium, and iron and contain vitamins A, B, C, and D. These greens stimulate the glands, liver and bile, and act as a splendid solvent.

Lettuce. Is refreshing and healthful. The outer leaves contain more of the vital food elements than the inside ones. Lettuce is rich in potassium, calcium, and iron; contains sodium and some iodine. Vitamins A, B, C, and D conclude the value of this food. Lettuce is favorably used in goiter conditions, as a remedy for all metabolic diseases, dropsy, and gout, also to stimulate the salivary glands and the appetite.

Muskmelons. All the varieties are wholesome. Being rich in alkalinizing elements they may be freely eaten by persons who have a tendency to acidosis. Vitamin B is contained in moderate proportion.

Olives. The ripe olive is highly nourishing; very rich in fat, in potassium, sodium, and calcium; also contains vitamins A and B in small amounts. Because of the oil content olives are said to act favorably upon the liver, also used to relieve constipation. The green olive is practically indigestible and of little fool value.

Onions. The sweet onion contains a peculiar form of sugar which makes it a valuable food. The pungent variety is principally used as a condiment. They are rich in mustard oil, potassium, and calcium, and contain a large quantity of sulphur, also vitamins B and C. Onions are recommended for colds, coughs, and catarrh, loss of appetite, and insomnia.

Parsley. Parsley is a valuable aromatic herb, valuable as a garnish, a flavoring, and a vegetable; or can be made into a health tea. Its ethereal oil has a diuretic action. Parsley tea is effective in fever conditions. It is useful in kidney conditions and stimulating to the digestive processes.

Potato. Is rich in alkaline salts, especially potassium, and its protein possesses a high nutritive value. It is particularly known for its anti-scurvy vitamin C. Contains starch of exceptional value.

Radishes. Are greatly favored as an appetizer, and are valuable in liver and intestinal disturbances. The mustard oil which they contain has a beneficial effect in catarrhal conditions. In kidney abnormalities the mustard oil may prove irritating. In the condition of gallstones radish juice is frequently recommended.

Spinach. The most popular of all green vegetables; it is rich in vitamins and mineral salts, chiefly iron.

Tomatoes. Are richer in iron than some of our fruits; their lime content is three times that of beef or fish. They are rich in vitamins A, B, and C, and the mineral and alkaline elements predominate. Tomatoes have a cleansing quality, especially of the liver; favorable as an appetizer.

Turnips and Turnip Greens. The young fresh turnips are delicious when grated and used for salads. They contain less carbohydrate than beets, therefore may be used generously in the diet of diabetics. In lime they are richer than any other roots, and the tops are recognized for their iron content.

Watermelons. Are a very valuable fruit on account of the large amount of sugar found in the juice. The total food value is in the juice. Melons have a strong diuretic action, without injury to the kidneys.

The Acid Base Balance

Extensive research has shown that foodstuffs differ in relation to their acid and basic contents. In certain foods, bases or alkalis predominate, while in others the mineral acids predominate.

A proper acid and base balance is essential for health and is maintained where a normal condition exists in the body fluids. The alkalinity of the blood depends entirely upon residues left by the foodstuffs in the body. Certain foods leave alkaline, or basic residues and help to maintain the alkalinity of the blood, while others leave acid residues which tend to lower the blood alkalinity.

All flesh foods leave highly acid residues and lessen the alkali reserve of the blood to a marked degree. Meat extracts, broths, bouillon, and gravies all belong in the group of acidifying foods.

Eggs are also acid but less so than meats.

Cereals of all sorts, including breads of every description, contain a preponderance of acids, though much less than meats.

Milk is slightly alkaline.

Nearly all fruits, also green vegetables and root vegetables of all sorts, are strongly basic and tend to alkalinize the body fluids. They produce alkaline ash.

A few fruits, such as cranberries, plums, and prunes must be placed in the acid-producing group because of the presence of benzoic acid, which is not oxidized in the body.

The foods producing an acid ash are: cheese, eggs, fish, meat, bread, cereals, pastry, rice, dried corn macaroni, spaghetti, white flour, chocolate, lentils, and nuts (except almonds).

Neutral foods are: butter, cream, honey, unrefined sugar, and natural syrups.

In general it is better to select foods which provide a large basic (alkaline) margin so as to add to the alkali reserve of the body.

Commercial anti-acids or alkalizers and baking soda tend to a condition of alkalosis. These inorganic minerals, for the most part, do not become an actual part of the alkali reserve of the body.

Mineral Salts

Too often the organic Food Salts or Mineral Elements are treated as unimportant substances, when in reality they play a most important part in our nutrition.

That the blood may be supplied with these necessary elements in balanced proportion, a correct understanding of the foods supplying these essentials, as well as a knowledge of the nature of them is necessary.

Calcium and Phosphorus are very apt to be deficient in the average American dietary. Calcium stands for strength and durability. If there is a deficiency of this mineral, the gelatin of the bones loses its chemical support and begins to decompose. It is utilized in bone and teeth formation, coagulation of blood, and aids in regulating mineral metabolic. Phosphorus is an important constituent of all cells; it is necessary for the utilization of organic foodstuffs, and is also required in bone and teeth formation.

Iodine is found in small quantities in many leafy vegetables and fruits, particularly in sea lettuce, radishes, strawberries, pineapple, green kidney beans, asparagus, cabbage, and garlic, if grown in non-goiterous regions. It is essential for the formation of the organic iodine compound-Thyrosin-which regulates some of the metabolic functions of the organism. A lack of this element causes goiter.

Iron occurs in the organism as a complex organic compound. In the soil the iron is carried to the leaves where it takes part in the formation of the chlorophyll granules, or green coloring matter. The body can use this mineral only in organic form; it serves the distinct purpose of producing the hemoglobin of the red blood corpuscles. It is the hemoglobin that carries oxygen through the blood to all parts of the body. Iron is perhaps the most active element in the organism and needs, therefore, to be renewed oftener than some of the other elements. All green leafy vegetables always contain the largest amount of iron compounds; fruits and nuts contain an appreciable amount, strawberries and walnuts ranking highest. In eggs, iron is mostly contained in the yolk.

Manganese, like iron, is an oxygen carrier. It is antagonistic to calcium. Very necessary for mineral balance in the body. Traces of this element are found in most vegetables.

Sodium, Potassium, and Magnesium are supplied quite generously in most vegetables, fruits, and cereals. These salts in solution in the blood and lymph are responsible for maintaining the osmotic pressure between cells and surrounding fluid. Sodium also serves to make the lime and magnesium salts more soluble for perfect assimilation, otherwise lime and magnesium would soon be deposited in the body. Potassium serves as the mineral basis of muscular tissues, giving them their characteristic pliancy, and magnesium has a peculiar vitalizing power.

Sulphur is most often found in combination with protein, and to some extent in asparagus, cauliflower, onions and radishes. It is a necessary constituent of every cell and especially characteristic of the hair and nails. Like silicon, it gives to the body softness, elasticity, and pliability.


Science has definitely proven that nutrition and growth are profoundly affected by the vitamins in food. Not only do specific diseases develop if the vitamins are absent, but malnutrition of all grades occurs when they are not in sufficient amounts.

The vitamin family now consists of eight and probably nine vitamins. Those with which we are most familiar are known as A, B, C, and E. At first it was believed that vitamin B was a single factor, but research has broken it up into six parts. It is known in England as B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6. In America B2 is called vitamin G.

In studying the vitamins it seems better to consider them individually because their physiological and chemical properties are quite distinct.

Vitamin A
is the growth and anti-ophthalmic vitamin. Deficiency of this results in malnutrition, stunted growth, and low resistance to infections. Foods rich in this vitamin are butter, cream, egg yolk, spinach, carrots, pineapples, prunes, alfalfa, and avocados.

Vitamin B
is the anti-neuritic factor that protects against polyneuritis. Deficiency results in loss of appetite, constipation, nervousness, muscle fatigue, anemia, and abnormal heart action. Foods rich in vitamin B are whole grains, nuts, yeast products, cereal germs, spinach, tomatoes, asparagus, egg yolk, milk, alfalfa, and beet leaves.

Vitamin C
The omission of this vitamin from the diet produces scurvy, sore mouth, stiff joints, tooth defects, malnutrition and retarded growth. Foods rich in C are oranges, lemons, tomatoes, pineapples, raspberries, apples, bananas, cabbage, lettuce, onions, potatoes, turnips.

Vitamin D
is the so-called antirachitic factor, and controls the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in bone-building and teeth formation. It prevents rickets, poor teeth, and possibly lung diseases. This vitamin may be called the Sunshine Vitamin because foods can be increased in vitamin D by exposing them to ultraviolet light, a process called irradiation. This proved that it is not exclusively a function of the rays of the sun acting on live tissues. Foods rich in D are vegetables, whole milk, egg yolk, and cod-liver oil.

Vitamin E
This vitamin appears most abundant in the oil of the wheat germ, but is also found in seeds and green leaves, and in several vegetable oils. It is necessary for reproduction and lactation.

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